types

The Difference Between Biobanks and Biorepositories

What is a Biorepository

A biorepository is a center that functions to:

  • Collect

  • Process

  • Store

  • Distribute

Biospecimens help support present and future research studies and investigations. It is a place where various specimens from many living organisms such as, animals and humans are contained and managed. Many life forms such as arthropods, vertebrates and invertebrates can be analyzed and studied through the preservation and storage of their tissue samples. Besides maintaining the relevant biological specimens, biorepositories also have a role to collect the associated information from these specimens for future use in research. One of the most crucial roles the biorepository plays is to ensure the quality of the collected samples. They also have to manage the accessibility of biospecimens while handling the disposition and distribution of their collection.

Biorepository Operations

As previously mentioned, the four main operations of a biorepository are collection, processing, storage and distribution. For elaboration purposes:

a)       Collection – This is the first step where biospecimens are obtained and recorded in the records. This can be done by scanning the sample’s barcode where the information regarding the sample is then transferred into the biorepository’s laboratory information management system. Examples of the information recorded would include the origin of the sample and the time the sample arrived.

b)      Processing – This phase involves the testing of the biospecimens to minimize variation and preparing them for storage. One example is the processing of DNA samples into a salt buffer to stabilize the DNA for long-term storage.

c)       Storage – After the biospecimens are collected and processed, they are stored accordingly based on the required temperature and environment. Some samples are stored in freezers while some can be stored at room temperature. This is where all biospecimens are held before distribution.

d)      Distribution – This occurs when the biorepository fills an order or request from a research team from the biorepository’s inventory system.

Biorepository Standard Operating Procedures

Standard operating procedures or SOPs are vital in a biorepository. It helps to:

·         Minimize variation between samples and reducing issues through standardized guidelines

·         Ensure that biospecimens closely resemble their natural state

·         Provide a framework of how operations should be conducted in a biorepository

·         Ensure reliable and seamless process during operations

·         Provide guidelines for backup during emergencies

An Overview of Biobanks

A biobank is a type of biorepository that stores biological samples that are usually human for research. Biobanks are an important resource for medical research as it helps support various types of contemporary research. It allows access to data for researchers that represent a large population. Samples and data available in biobanks can also be used by many different researchers for various studies. This is crucial as there are many researchers who have difficulty acquiring samples before biobanks existed.

Although many issues such as privacy, medical ethics, and research ethics have been raised, a consensus has been reached that operating biobanks should consider the policies and governing principles that protect the communities that participate in their programs. The term “biobank” can be defined as “an organized collection of human biological material and associated information stored for one or more research purposes”. While biospecimen collections from other living organisms can also be called biobanks, many prefer to reserve the term only for human biospecimens.

Types of Biobanks

Biobanks can be classified based on their purpose or design. Both the terms “biobanks” and “biorepositories” have been used interchangeably. In the United States, the National Cancer Institute thinks of biorepository as a place or organization where biospecimens are stored. The term “biobank” is also being used in the same context in the United States and European institutions. Biobanks can be classified based on different approaches such as:

  • Population-based biobanks

  • Hospital or academic based biobanks

  • Disease-oriented biobanks

  • Non-profit organizations or commercial companies

Biobanks can also vary in nature, contents, participants, and scale. For example, a human biobank can be classified based on the tissue type, their research purpose, or ownership of the biobank. The size of the biobank can be based on the disease group, national, statewide, or regional. Other experts classify biobanks into four different basic types:

  • Clinical or control based biospecimens from non-diseased donors and donors with specific diseases.

  • Biobanks that follow their participants over a long period of time, also known as longitudinal population-based biobanks.

  • Biobanks with twin registries that obtain samples from both dizygotic and monozygotic twins.

  • Population isolate biobanks that have a setup using homogenous genetic donors.

Despite the various classifications of biobanks from various experts, the currently accepted classification is from the pan-European Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI). They distinguish only two types of biobanks which are:

  • Disease-oriented biobanks where it contains clinical data and tissue samples

  • Population-based biobanks where the focus is on the study and development of complex and common diseases.

Conclusion

In conclusion, both the terms “biorepository” and “biobank” are often used interchangeably as the distinction is blurry. However, one of the most significant differences is that biobanks often refer to collections of human biological material while biorepositories can refer to collections of all living organisms.

References:

1)      Biorepository. Wikipedia. Accessed 11/8/2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biorepository

2)      Biobank. Wikipedia. Accessed 11/8/2018. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biobank

3)      Kinkorova J. Biobanks in the era of personalized medicine: objectives, challenges, and innovation. EPMA J. 2016; 7(1):4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4762166/