Histopathology is an interesting but complex subject. It is the understanding of processes of diseases and biological functions of cells and how it interacts with each other. There are many more terminologies such as metastasis, apoptosis, necrosis, and more.
Run on assays have mostly been replaced by Global Run on assays that utilize next generation DNA sequencing as a readout platform. Known as next generation sequencing or GRO-Seq, they provide a much-detailed view of genes that are engaged in transcription while also providing quantitative levels of expression.
Many current literatures have demonstrated TMAs using paraffin medium and FFPE blocks for most studies due to the ease of specimen availability, long term storage, and cost-effectiveness for specimens. The TMA platform is an unparalleled tool to optimize assay and adapt novel molecular assays to archival paraffin tissues which are still a large and relatively untapped molecular repository. The remarkable value of TMA applications has been the efficiency and accuracy in the detection of clinicopathologic associations in a wide variety of diseases. The portability of this technique has also played a vital role in the widespread use of it and will continue to drive TMA applications.
DNA and RNA extraction has played important and crucial roles in helping researchers and scientists to manipulate molecular biology analysis to have a better understanding in the biology of the earth. Due to the rapid advancement of technology, DNA and RNA extraction has improved vastly however, weaknesses of the instruments should be bettered constantly by conducting quality control as it affects all subsequent results.
FFPE is a great commodity to the research and medical field as it is an inexpensive and easy way to store and archive tissue specimens. It also preserves the integrity of the specimen for a long time and can therefore be used retrospectively in many studies which reduces the time needed to track down specific tissues that fit the criteria of the study.
Concert Genetics is a company that has collected information on 69,105 Genetic Testing Units (GTUs) that are active and available for ordering as of March 2017. Of these, there are 59,531 that assay a single gene or analyte, 8535 that are panels which assay multiple genes or analyses, 959 exome or genome that assay the entire genome sequence, and 79 that are non-invasive prenatal tests.
Simply put, for most patients, a tissue biopsy can be costly, painful, and potentially risky.
Regardless of the challenges in obtaining adequate tissue for biopsy purposes, minimally invasive technologies have managed to:
- Capture genomic contents of tumor in fluids
- Combine sensitive genotyping assays
Hence, the potential role of “liquid biopsy” is now being evaluated as an alternative for tissue biopsy.
Due to increased efforts to develop more effective cancer therapies, there is an increased demand for specimens that allow molecular analysis of tumor tissues and isolation of the proteins. This means that a safe, efficient, reproducible and cost-effective process of deparaffinization is required. Releasing proteins from FFPE specimens can be daunting as the extensive molecular crosslinking that occurs through formalin fixation lowers the efficiency of protein extraction and may also interfere with immunoreactivity. This warrants the development of more advanced and efficient extraction methods.
The four different extraction protocols compared with or without the use of proteinase K digestion are: Heat treatment, QIAamp DNA-blood-mini-kit extraction, EasyMAG NucliSens extraction, Gentra Capture0Column-kit extraction.
The introduction and implementation of standard operating procedures (SOPS) is extremely important in biobanking. This is because one wants to maintain a high quality of stored samples that closely resemble the biospecimens that need to be worked on.