FFPE is a great commodity to the research and medical field as it is an inexpensive and easy way to store and archive tissue specimens. It also preserves the integrity of the specimen for a long time and can therefore be used retrospectively in many studies which reduces the time needed to track down specific tissues that fit the criteria of the study.
Concert Genetics is a company that has collected information on 69,105 Genetic Testing Units (GTUs) that are active and available for ordering as of March 2017. Of these, there are 59,531 that assay a single gene or analyte, 8535 that are panels which assay multiple genes or analyses, 959 exome or genome that assay the entire genome sequence, and 79 that are non-invasive prenatal tests.
Simply put, for most patients, a tissue biopsy can be costly, painful, and potentially risky.
Regardless of the challenges in obtaining adequate tissue for biopsy purposes, minimally invasive technologies have managed to:
- Capture genomic contents of tumor in fluids
- Combine sensitive genotyping assays
Hence, the potential role of “liquid biopsy” is now being evaluated as an alternative for tissue biopsy.
Due to increased efforts to develop more effective cancer therapies, there is an increased demand for specimens that allow molecular analysis of tumor tissues and isolation of the proteins. This means that a safe, efficient, reproducible and cost-effective process of deparaffinization is required. Releasing proteins from FFPE specimens can be daunting as the extensive molecular crosslinking that occurs through formalin fixation lowers the efficiency of protein extraction and may also interfere with immunoreactivity. This warrants the development of more advanced and efficient extraction methods.
The four different extraction protocols compared with or without the use of proteinase K digestion are: Heat treatment, QIAamp DNA-blood-mini-kit extraction, EasyMAG NucliSens extraction, Gentra Capture0Column-kit extraction.
The introduction and implementation of standard operating procedures (SOPS) is extremely important in biobanking. This is because one wants to maintain a high quality of stored samples that closely resemble the biospecimens that need to be worked on.
Tissue microarray is a method for organizing and analyzing tiny amounts of tissue samples on a solid support structure.
The acceleration of oxidative phosphorylation, aerobic glycolysis and its parallel pentose phosphate pathway make glucose metabolism a possible target for cancer therapies by distinguishing their metabolic profiles from non-cancerous cells.